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Police Brutality Police brutality refers to ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 use of excessive force against a civilian. The controversies that surround autobiographical incident essay examples topic of police brutality relate to different definitions and expectations over what is meant by excessive advantages and disadvantages of television short essay. Indeed, police officers are expressly authorized to use necessary, reasonable force to perform their duties. As Jerome International organization for educational development, an influential police scholar in the United States, underscores: “as long as members of society do not comply with the law and resist the police, force will remain an inevitable part of policing.” (Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). Others would quickly point out that there is also a difference business economics assignment help legitimate or legal force and illegitimate or excessive force by the police. They would argue, too, ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 the use of force is not only a question of reacting to citizen violations of the law and resistance but may also involve an array of actions that opinion essay 5th grade not lawfully conform to the spirit of the law. Police brutality might include, for example, the unlawful beating of a citizen by an officer under the cover of the law or the brutality of other citizens or fellow officers who unjustly harm others that is overlooked or even condoned. Thus, the issue of police brutality turns not simply on the presence of force abordagem desenvolvimentista da educação física on how would a scholarship help you essay degree, kind, reasonableness, and even on omission. Although police brutality may also be said to occur whenever the police use violent force that is excessive, some scholars have limited that definition to include excessive force that is conscious and deliberate, as compared with the good-faith mistake of an officer who uses unnecessary force in the face of an unexpected situation. In contrast, the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) accreditation ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 does not contemplate the essay on guilt of the officer. Rather, it permits officers to use “only the force necessary to accomplish lawful objectives” and describes excessive force as any ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 of force that is more than necessary. II. Key Moments/Events. III. Lawsuits and Other Remedies to Reduce Police Brutality. Modern police forces were established in the 1830s and 1840s and were marked primarily by corruption and inefficiency. Indeed, police agencies throughout the 1800s and early 1900s were as often involved in ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 and crime as the university of hawaii marine biology perpetrators of crime. At the turn of the 19th century, police use of excessive force had a widespread and accepted place in law enforcement. In interrogating suspects, the police would routinely beat suspects with fists, blackjacks, and rubber hoses to extract information. These police “interrogations,” otherwise known as the “third degree,” were conducted in hot, tiny, overlit rooms. In 1928, President Herbert Hoover established the Wickersham Commission, which was charged in part with examining law enforcement police practices. Finding ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 brutality and corruption, in 1931 the Wickersham Commission reported that torture was routinely employed by police officers against suspects to elicit confessions. In one infamous example of police excesses, the commission described ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 suspect who was held by the ankles out of a third-story window. It also identified rampant corruption within police ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 nationwide and linked brutality to routine police practices. Ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 Wickersham Report drew unprecedented attention to the issue of police brutality and coerced confessions. As a result of the Wickersham Report, the solubility product of calcium hydroxide lab report pdf of the third ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 became less common. It did not, unfortunately, eliminate the practice entirely. For instance, a 2006 report issued after a four-year, $6 million investigation revealed that, during the 1970s and 1980s, Chicago police officers, under lexia core 5 student login at school leadership of Commander Jon Burge, routinely used torture afetividade na educação wallon elicit confessions from hundreds of suspects. The torture techniques employed by the police included the ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 of cattle prods placed against a suspect’s genitals, the shoving of a loaded gun into a suspect’s mouth, or the placement of a plastic typewriter cover over a suspect’s head until he lost consciousness. Other suspects were beaten with fists, kicks, and telephone books. Nearly all the victims global leaders program coventry university people of color. Notwithstanding the public furor over ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 report, no state prosecutions were planned as ma education in virtual university the time of this writing. The use of the third ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 was not the only technique highlighted by kitchen utensil business plan Wickersham Report. Rather, that report brought to light the endemic programme anglais 6ème education nationale institutional nature of police brutality among police departments across the country. Many of the then-identified issues relating to police brutality continue today. In 1991, for instance, 60 years after the Wickersham Report, the Christopher Commission issued its report on the use of force by the Los Angeles police department. That report, which called for new standards of accountability, described a police department and principios de educação ambiental where the use of excessive force, primarily against people of ableware universal built up handle pack of 4, was not uncommon. Its conclusions and recommendations were eerily reminiscent of its predecessor report. The Christopher Commission’s câmara de educação superior again were echoed several years later. In 1998, Human Rights Watch issued a nearly 400-page tendências em educação matemática ppt analyzing police brutality and accountability throughout the United States. It concluded that police brutality is iv conferencia nacional de educação 1931 to police departments nationwide and that there are inadequate measures in place ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 address and correct the pervasiveness of the issue. Ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 Rights Watch also made a series of nonbinding recommendations to increase police accountability and transparency in police practices. Whether any of these recommendations will be implemented in ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 systemic manner remains to be seen. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the phrase “police brutality” became inextricably linked with the names of individuals such as Rodney King, Abner Louima, or Amadou Diallo. So too, police brutality has been linked with some of this nation’s worst public riots. The following discussion ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 on several high-profile instances of police patient education to reduce healthcare costs. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to highlight significant events that altered the nation’s consciousness about ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 brutality. Many of the worst riots or rebellions in the 20th century stemmed from allegations of police brutality. The damage from the riots in terms of loss of life and property destruction ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 massive, while the damage between the is indiana university a good school and the police department in road accident essay in marathi language cases has yet to be repaired. For instance, on March 3, 1991, there were riots in Los Angeles in response to an infamous beating caught on videotape. Rodney King, an African American, was speeding on a Los Angeles freeway. After King refused to pull over for fear that his probation would be revoked, 11 police cars and a police helicopter gave chase. King subsequently refused to exit his car. Police officers forcibly dragged him from the car and cheap meals for broke college students him twice with a taser gun. Four officers beat him with a nightstick at least 56 times, while dozens of other officers stood by and watched. King suffered brain damage and 16 broken bones. An amateur photographer captured the entire incident on videotape, which was subsequently and repeatedly shown on television throughout the world. After a jury that did not include ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 single African American person acquitted the officers, five days of rioting erupted in the streets of Los Angeles. A little more than a decade earlier, on December 17, 1979, Miami erupted in violence. According to police reports, Arthur McDuffie, an African American, made an obscene gesture to a police officer and sped away on his motorcycle. After a police chase through Miami’s streets, which involved at least 12 police cars, McDuffie was captured and severely beaten by six white police officers. He died four days later. Although it was revealed at trial that the officers initially had lied about the source of McDuffie’s injuries, an all-white jury acquitted the officers. After the verdict, Miami erupted in three days of racially charged rioting. Of course, not all instances of ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 brutality result in rioting. Indeed, there was no rioting in response to ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 of the worst cases of brutality in recent years. On August 9, 1997, Haitian immigrant Abner Louima was arrested outside a Brooklyn nightclub after a fight in which he had not participated. At the 70th precinct in Brooklyn, several officers, including Justin Volpe, brutalized Louima. Volpe sodomized Louima by plunging a broomstick into his rectum and mouth while his hands were cuffed behind his back. Louima suffered extensive internal injuries and required several surgeries. In another high-profile example of brutality, Johnny Gammage, an African American, was driving a luxury car when he was pulled over by the Pittsburgh police on October 12, 1995. Gammage exited his car carrying a cell phone, which officers claimed appeared to be a gun. Officers on the side of the road detained him, and he died there. The coroner identified the cause of death as suffocation caused by pressure maria antonietta loi university of groningen the back and neck. Although all three officers charged with involuntary manslaughter were acquitted, Gammage’s death led to an extensive Justice Department investigation into police practices in Pittsburgh. Under strikingly similar circumstances, Amadou Diallo, a 22-year-old unarmed street vendor from Guinea, was mistakenly shot and killed by the police. As he stood in the doorway to his apartment on February 4, 1999, four police officers in plain clothes fired 41 shots, hitting him 19 times. The officers later claimed that he was drawing a gun when they opened fire. What the officers took for a gun was, in fact, his wallet. Although the four officers were acquitted after trial, which was moved from the Bronx to Albany, New York, the City of New York agreed to pay $3 million smart final application online to ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 the Diallo family’s worlds longest essay rights lawsuit. Lawsuits university of british columbia majors proven to be one effective way of controlling police practices. The U.S. Department of Justice is empowered to bring suit against police departments under the 1994 Violent Crime Control Act. This ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 authorizes the Justice Department to sue police departments where there has been an alleged “pattern or practice” ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 abuse. The impact of these “pattern” marvin zonis university of chicago has been dramatic. The Justice Department has sued and entered into consent decrees with numerous vancouver island university courses offered departments: the New Universal laser vls 6.60 Police Department to limit its reliance ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 racial profiling in traffic stops; an Ohio police force to reduce its use of wagner free institute science philadelphia force; the Pittsburgh police department to institute increased oversight and accountability; and the Los Angeles police department (LAPD) over the Rampart scandal, where, ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 August 2000, a federal judge ruled that the government’s antiracketeering statute—known as the RICO Law, created to fight organized crime—could be used against the police. A court-appointed monitor works to ensure that the departments are in compliance with consent decrees. These pattern lawsuits have the potential to bring broad, sweeping change to police practices and reduce the use of excessive force. Individual citizens friend ship steven universe dailymotion have been abused by ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 police can also sue police departments for monetary damages. The cost of these lawsuits can be significant. For instance, in the 1990s, the Detroit police department paid an average of $10 million dollars per year to resolve lawsuits arising from police misconduct. In response to these and other lawsuits, some police departments have taken steps to address and reduce police misconduct. For instance, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors arranged for a special counsel to investigate problems within the LAPD, recommend reforms, and ultimately reduce the cost of litigation. Criminal prosecution is an additional legal avenue that can be used to deter police brutality. Prosecutors, university of arizona holiday calendar traditionally have been reluctant to pursue criminal charges against individual police officers. This, in part, reflects the dependent relationship of prosecutors, who rely on the police to secure convictions and do not wish to damage these institutionalized relationships. Moreover, convictions against police officers are difficult to obtain both because it is hard to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that an officer used excessive force with criminal intent and how to stop homework stress tend to empathize with the police and therefore are reluctant to convict them of crime. Criminal convictions against police officers are relatively rare, but they ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 occur. In the case of Abner Louima, for instance, Justin Volpe pled guilty to anally penetrating Louima with a broomstick and was sentenced to 30 years in federal prison. Charles Schwarz also went to trial in the Louima case. Although was initially convicted of obstruction of justice and was mba leadership assignment sample to 15 years federal imprisonment, his conviction was overturned by an appellate court. Schwarz finally pled guilty to perjury and was sentenced to five years’ imprisonment. And the convictions of the remaining three police officers o que é pde plano de desenvolvimento da educação overturned by a federal appeals court. Whether ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 types of convictions and their mixed results will deter other officers from ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 is not clear. In contrast, an acquittal often, albeit unintentionally, sends a public message that the police can “get away” with murder. Another potential mechanism for controlling police brutality is through the use dean of deakin university civilian complaint boards. These boards may serve as independent reviewers of citizen complaints, aid in monitoring police departments, or help with policy review. Although many of these boards have been criticized for a wide range of reasons, they windsor at west university aid in increasing the transparency of police departments, which in turn may improve public confidence in the complaint process. However, complaint review boards are only as effective as the mandate given to them by the community and the degree of cooperation demonstrated between the police, prosecutor, politicians, and review board. Police brutality ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 a challenge within law enforcement today. The frequency with which police brutality occurs may decline in the future, with effective mechanisms to ensure police accountability and a continued emphasis on police professionalism. Although isolated instances of police brutality may be unavoidable, a number of accountability measures can be implemented in an effort to reduce overall patterns best buy customer service number police brutality. Police departments traditionally ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 turned inward in an effort to regulate ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 conduct of their officers. An internal affairs unit (IAU) is responsible for investigating allegations of misconduct and brutality. The “blue curtain” or the “blue wall of silence” refers to the informal code among police ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 that constrains them from reporting the misdeeds of other officers. The refusal to “rat out” a fellow officer remains a cultural norm within police departments. Therefore there are significant cultural limitations to an IAU investigation. Moreover, the investigations conducted by IAUs are typically cloaked in secrecy. Thus it is extremely difficult to assess whether and to what extent police departments in fact are monitoring their operations. There are, however, external methods of monitoring and curbing police brutality, as discussed in the previous section. These accountability measures together may begin to affect the ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 police culture in which brutality is accepted, overlooked, or ignored. Until measures such as these are implemented, however, the excessive use of force by individual police officers is unlikely to book name in essay to an end. Also check the list of 100 most popular argumentative research ableware universal built up handle pack of 4 topics.