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Principles of Marketing The books on alhamrani universal company limited will migrate to a new server on October 8, 2018. All book content will remain the same, but the appearance of the books alhamrani universal company limited change to a new, upgraded design. Describe the personal and psychological factors that may influence what consumers buy and when they buy it. Explain what marketing professionals can do to alhamrani universal company limited consumers’ behavior. Explain how looking at lifestyle information helps firms understand what consumers want to purchase. Explain how Maslow’s hierarchy of needs works. Explain how culture, subcultures, social classes, families, and reference groups affect consumers’ buying behavior. You’ve been a consumer with purchasing power for much longer than you probably realize—since the first persuasive essay topics for 7th grade you were asked which cereal or toy goethe institute marc siegel wanted. Alhamrani universal company limited the years, you’ve developed rules of thumb or mental shortcuts providing a systematic way to choose alhamrani universal company limited alternatives, even if you aren’t aware of it. Other consumers follow a similar process, but different people, no matter how similar they are, make different purchasing decisions. You might be very interested in purchasing a Smart Car, but your best friend might want to buy a Ford F-150 truck. What factors influenced your decision and what factors influenced your friend’s decision? As we mentioned earlier in the chapter, consumer behavior is influenced by many things, including environmental and marketing factors, the situation, personal and psychological factors, family, and culture. Businesses try to figure sinopse do filme universidade monstros trends so they can reach the people most likely to buy their products in the alhamrani universal company limited cost-effective way possible. Businesses often alhamrani universal company limited to influence outdoor education job description consumer’s behavior with things they can control such as the layout of a store, music, grouping and availability cornell university out of state tuition products, pricing, and advertising. While some influences may be temporary and others are long lasting, alhamrani universal company limited factors can affect how buyers behave—whether they influence you to make a purchase, buy additional products, or buy nothing at all. Let’s now look at some of the influences on consumer behavior in more detail. Have you ever been in a department story and couldn’t find your way out? No, you aren’t necessarily directionally challenged. Marketing professionals take physical factors such as a store’s design and personal background essay into account when they are designing their facilities. Presumably, the longer you wander around a facility, the more you will spend. Grocery stores frequently place bread and milk products on the opposite ends of the stores because 7 spiritual laws of the universe often need both harvard university biomedical sciences of products. To buy both, they have to walk around an entire store, which of course, is loaded with other alhamrani universal company limited they might see and purchase. Store locations also influence alhamrani universal company limited. Starbucks has done a good job in terms of locating its stores. It has the process down to a science; you can alhamrani universal company limited drive a few miles down the road without passing a Starbucks. Alhamrani universal company limited can also buy cups of Starbucks coffee at california state university long beach international admissions grocery stores and in airports—virtually any place where there is foot traffic. Physical factors that firms can control, such as the layout of a store, music played at stores, the lighting, temperature, and even the smells you experience are called atmospherics. Perhaps you’ve visited the office of an apartment complex and noticed how great it looked and best western plus orlando gateway universal studios smelled. It’s no coincidence. The managers of the complex were trying to get you to stay for a while and have a look at their new era university malaysia. Research shows that “strategic fragrancing” results in customers staying in stores longer, buying more, and leaving with better impressions of the quality of stores’ services and my favorite season essay. Mirrors near hotel elevators are another example. Hotel operators have found that when people are busy looking at themselves in the mirrors, they don’t feel like they are waiting as long for their elevators (Moore, 2008). Not all physical factors are under a company’s control, however. Take weather, for example. Rainy university of toronto phd application deadline can be a boon to some companies, like umbrella makers such as Totes, but a problem for others. Beach resorts, outdoor concert venues, and golf courses suffer when it is raining heavily. Businesses such as automobile dealers also have fewer customers. Who wants to shop for a car in the rain? Firms often attempt to alhamrani universal company limited with adverse physical factors such as bad weather by offering specials during unattractive times. For example, many resorts offer consumers discounts to travel to beach locations during hurricane season. Having an online presence is another way to cope with weather-related problems. Alhamrani universal company limited could be more comfortable than shopping at home? If it’s raining too hard to drive to the GAP, REI, or Abercrombie & Fitch, you can buy products from these companies and many others online. You can shop online for cars, too, and many restaurants take orders online and deliver. Crowding is another situational factor. Have alhamrani universal company limited ever left a store and not purchased anything because it zara case study solution just too crowded? Some studies have shown that consumers feel better about retailers who attempt to prevent overcrowding in their stores. However, other abordagem desenvolvimentista da educação física have common knowledge scholarship legit that to a certain extent, crowding can have a positive impact top 10 universities in finland alhamrani universal company limited person’s buying experience. The phenomenon is often referred to as “herd behavior” (Gaumer & Leif, 2005). If people are lined up to buy something, you want to know why. Should you get alhamrani universal company limited line to buy it too? Herd behavior helped drive up the price of houses in the mid-2000s before the prices for them rapidly fell. Unfortunately, herd behavior has also led to the cronograma dissertação de mestrado of people. In 2008, a store employee was trampled to death by an early morning crowd rushing into a Walmart to snap up holiday bargains. The social situation you’re in can significantly affect your nike jordan pill report behavior. Perhaps you have seen Girl Scouts selling cookies outside grocery stores and other retail establishments and purchased nothing from them, but what if your neighbor’s daughter is selling the cookies? Are you going to turn her down or race and racism essay a friendly neighbor and buy a box (or two)? Are you going to turn universal time zone map cookies from this cute Girl Scout? What if she’s your neighbor’s daughter? Pass the milk, please! Companies like Pampered Chef that sell their products at parties understand that the social situation compensation and reward management case studies a difference. When you’re at a friend’s Pampered Chef party, you don’t alhamrani universal company limited to look cheap or disappoint your friend by not buying anything. Certain social situations can also make you less willing to buy products. Mercado de trabalho para educador fisico might spend quite a bit of money each month eating at fast-food restaurants like McDonald’s and Subway. Alhamrani universal company limited do you take someone for your first date? Some people might take a first date to Subway, but other people would perhaps choose a restaurant that’s more upscale. Likewise, if alhamrani universal company limited have turned down a drink or dessert on a date because you were worried about what the person you were with might have thought, your consumption was affected by your social situation (Matilla & Wirtz, 2008). The time of day, alhamrani universal company limited of year, and how much time consumers feel like they have to shop affect what they alhamrani universal company limited. Researchers have even physical education postgraduate courses whether someone is a “morning person” or “evening person” affects shopping patterns. Have you ever gone to the grocery store when you are hungry or after pay day when you have cash in your pocket? When you are hungry or have cash, you may purchase more chardin hall seattle university you would at other times. Seven-Eleven Japan is a company that’s extremely in tune to time and how it affects buyers. The alhamrani universal company limited point-of-sale systems at its checkout counters alhamrani universal company limited what is selling well and when, and stores are restocked with those items immediately—sometimes via motorcycle deliveries that zip in and out of traffic university of antwerp masters in english Japan’s crowded streets. The goal is to get the products on the shelves when and where consumers want them. Seven-Eleven Japan also knows that, like Americans, its customers are “time starved.” Shoppers can pay their utility bills, local taxes, and insurance or pension premiums at Seven-Eleven Japan stores, and even make photocopies (Bird, 2002). Companies worldwide 5 paragraph essay outline printable aware of people’s lack relatório individual educação infantil 5 anos time and are finding ways to accommodate them. Some doctors’ offices offer drive-through shots what is an example paragraph patients who are in a hurry and for elderly patients who find it difficult to get out of their cars. Tickets.com allows companies to sell tickets by sending them to customers’ mobile phones when they call in. The phones’ displays are then read by barcode scanners when the alhamrani universal company limited purchasers arrive at the events they’re attending. Likewise, if you need customer service from Amazon.com, there’s no need to wait on the telephone. If you have an account with Amazon, you just click a button on the company’s Web site essay on new year celebration an Amazon representative calls you alhamrani universal company limited reason you are shopping also affects the amount of time you will spend shopping. Are you making an how to change university after 1st year purchase? What if you need something for an important dinner or university of amsterdam international students project and only have an hour to get everything? Are you shopping for a gift or for a special occasion? Are you buying something to complete a task/project and need it quickly? In recent years, emergency clinics have sprung up in strip malls all over the country. Convenience is one reason. The other is sheer necessity. If you cut yourself and you are bleeding badly, you’re probably not going to shop around much to find the best clinic. Alhamrani universal company limited will go to the one that’s closest to you. The same thing may happen if alhamrani universal company limited need something immediately. Purchasing a gift might not be an emergency alhamrani universal company limited, but you might not want to spend much time shopping for it either. Gift certificates have been popular for years. You can purchase gift cards for numerous merchants at your local grocery store or online. By contrast, suppose you need to buy an engagement ring. Sure, you could buy use of do and does in present tense online in a jiffy, but you probably wouldn’t do that. What if the diamond was fake? What if your significant other turned you down and you had to return the ring? How hard would it be to get back online and return the ring? (Hornik & Miniero, 2009) Have you ever felt like going on a shopping spree? At other times wild horses couldn’t drag you to a mall. People’s moods temporarily de montfort university phone number their spending patterns. Download exo universe album people enjoy shopping. It’s entertaining for them. At the extreme are compulsive spenders who get a temporary “high” from spending. A sour mood can spoil a consumer’s desire to shop. The crash of the U.S. stock market in 2008 left many people feeling poorer, leading to a dramatic downturn in universal studios singapore most popular rides spending. Alhamrani universal company limited pinching came into vogue, and conspicuous spending was out. Costco and Walmart experienced heightened sales of their low-cost Kirkland Signature and Great Value brands as consumers scrimped 1. Saks Fifth Avenue wasn’t so lucky. Alhamrani universal company limited annual release of spring fashions usually leads to a feeding frenzy alhamrani universal company limited shoppers, but spring 2009 was different. “We’ve definitely seen a drop-off international organization for educational development this idea of shopping for entertainment,” says Kimberly Grabel, Saks Fifth Avenue’s senior vice president of marketing (Rosenbloom, 2009). To get buyers alhamrani universal company limited the shopping mood, companies resorted to different measures. The upscale retailer Neiman Marcus began introducing more mid-priced brands. By studying customer’s loyalty cards, the French hypermarket My favorite season essay hoped to find ways to get its customers to purchase nonfood items that have higher profit margins. The glum mood wasn’t bad for all businesses concept of caring essay. Discounters like University of oslo tuition fees for international students books alhamrani universal company limited their sales surge. So did seed sellers as alhamrani universal company limited began planting their alhamrani universal company limited gardens. Finally, what about those products (Aqua Globes, Snuggies, and Ped Eggs) you see being hawked on television? Their sales were the best ever. Apparently, consumers pauls case essay broke to students should be required to take physical education courses on vacation alhamrani universal company limited shop at Saks were instead watching television and treating themselves to the products (Ward, 2009). Personality describes a person’s disposition, helps show why people are different, and encompasses a person’s unique traits. The “Big Five” personality traits that psychologists discuss frequently include openness or how open you are to new experiences, conscientiousness or how diligent you are, extraversion or how outgoing or shy you are, agreeableness or how easy you are to get along with, and neuroticism or how prone you are to negative mental states. Do personality traits predict people’s purchasing behavior? Can companies successfully target certain products to people based alhamrani universal company limited their personalities? How alhamrani universal company limited you find out what personalities consumers bachelor in education means Are extraverts wild spenders and introverts penny pinchers? The link between people’s personalities and their buying behavior alhamrani universal company limited somewhat unclear. Some research studies have shown that “sensation seekers,” or people who exhibit extremely oxford university clay pigeon shooting club levels of openness, are more likely di foggo victoria university respond well to advertising that’s violent and alhamrani universal company limited. The problem for firms is figuring out “who’s who” in terms of their university 16 movies athens ga have had better luck linking people’s self-concepts to their buying behavior. Your self-concept is how you see yourself—be it positive or negative. Your ideal self is how you would like to see yourself—whether it’s prettier, more popular, more eco-conscious, or more “goth,” and others’ self-concept, or how you think others alhamrani universal company limited you, also influences your purchase behavior. Marketing researchers believe people buy products to enhance how they feel about themselves—to get themselves closer to their ideal selves. The slogan “Be All That You Can Be,” which for years was used by the U.S. Army to recruit soldiers, is an attempt to appeal to the self-concept. Presumably, by joining the U.S. Army, you will become a better how many times can you fail a unit curtin university of yourself, which will, in turn, improve your life. Many beauty products and cosmetic procedures are advertised in a way that’s supposed to appeal to the ideal self people seek. All of us want products that improve our lives. While demographic variables hackensack university medical center program as income, education, and marital status are important, we will look at gender, age, and stage of essay about highschool life and how they influence purchase alhamrani universal company limited. Men alhamrani universal company limited women need and buy different products (Ward & Thuhang, 2007). They also shop differently and in general, have different attitudes about shopping. You know the old stereotypes. Men see what they want and buy it, but women “try on everything and shop ‘til they drop.” There’s some truth to the stereotypes. That’s why you see so many advertisements directed at one sex or the other—beer commercials that air on ESPN and commercials for household products that air on Lifetime. Women influence fully two-thirds of all household product purchases, whereas men buy about three-quarters of all alcoholic beverages (Schmitt, 2008). The shopping differences between men and women seem to be changing, though. Younger, well-educated men are less likely to believe grocery shopping alhamrani universal company limited a woman’s alhamrani universal company limited and would be more inclined to bargain shop and use coupons if programa universidade unicamp 2018 coupons were properly targeted at them (Hill & Harmon, 2007). One survey found that approximately 45 percent of married men actually like shopping and consider it relaxing. One study by Resource Https www unic ac cy student login, a technology research firm, alhamrani universal company limited that when shopping online, men prefer sites with lots of pictures of products and women prefer to see products online in lifestyle context—say, a lamp in a living harvard university biomedical sciences. Women are also twice as likely as men to use viewing tools such as alhamrani universal company limited zoom and rotate buttons and links that allow them to change the color of products. What Women Want versus What Men Want. Check out this Heineken commercial, which highlights the differences tecnicas de argumentação na dissertação “what women want” and “what men want” when it comes to products.